384 HISTORY OF PERSIA CHAP.LXXIII unspeakable treachery. In the end he mounted his horse to escape, but the beast was hamstrung, and the last Persian hero fell wounded into the hands of his deadly foe. No mercy was shown by the victor. The gallant Lutf All was blinded—according to one account, by the very hands of the brutal Aga Mohamed—besides suffering other indignities. He was then sent to Teheran, where he was strangled. The Fate of Kerman.—Kerman was treated with almost inconceivable cruelty. Not only were its women handed over to the soldiery, who were encouraged to rape and to murder, but the Kajar victor ordered that twenty thousand pairs of eyes should be presented to him. These he carefully counted, and then he remarked to the officer charged with the atrocious task, " Had one pair been wanting, yours would have been taken ! " Thus almost the entire male population was blinded, and their women were handed over to the soldiery as slaves. In order to commemorate the capture of Lutf Ali Khan in a suitable manner, Aga Mohamed ordered six hundred prisoners to be decapitated. Their skulls were then carried to Bam by three hundred other prisoners, who were then also killed, and a pyramid of skulls was erected on the spot where Lutf Ali Khan was taken. This pyramid was seen by Pottinger in 181 o. Kerman has never recovered. To-day it possesses more beggars and suffers from greater poverty than perhaps any other city in Persia. The Downfall of the Zand Dynasty.—The awful massacre and the extirpation of the family ended the short-lived Zand dynasty. Lutf Ali possessed remarkable beauty of physique, a valour which has seldom, if ever, been exceeded, and leadership in the field of a very high order. Unfortunately his severity and his imperious and overbearing character, which would not allow him to stoop to conciliation, cost him the support of the great families. Fighting gallantly against hopeless odds, he long main- tained the struggle, but in the end he lost the throne of Persia to the rival Kajar chief.1 1 In the Introduction to The Dynasty of the Kajars, Sir H. Jones Brydges gives an interesting account of the interviews he had with Lutf Ali Khan, who impressed him most favourably.